A comprehensive review: SnO2 for photovoltaic and gas sensor applications
Tin oxide is remarkable material in today’s research era due to its unique properties in electrical and optical fields. Due to its wide band gap (3.6 eV), it has been used as a core material in many important applications in the field of optoelectronics, spintronics, photovoltaic, thin-film transistors, photocatalysis, dielectrics, sensors and transparent electronic devices. Thin film technology provides many advantages towards photovoltaic area which includes low cost, less material and energy consumption and easy to access. Fabrication of photovoltaic cells by SnO2 thin films can open the different technological routes for future generation with excellent conversion efficiencies which may range 15% to 20%. It is one of the best candidates for gas sensor applications too with highest sensitivity and selectivity behavior, good oxidizing power, strong chemical bonding, non toxicity and unique transport properties. Tin oxide thin films with various combinations of materials can be synthesized by chemical and physical routes. The detailed advancement in various preparation methods and characterization techniques including X-ray diffraction, atomic force microscopy and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy have been presented and discussed by authors. Characteristics measurement by Valence Band Structure, Photoluminence Intensity and Scanning Electron Microscope has been also reported with their performance, effect of solar energy conversion efficiency and quick response time in case of gas sensors. Prospective areas of SnO2 research for photovoltaic and gas sensor applications has been discussed and summarized by the authors. The obtained results will illustrate the possibilities of scheming Physical, chemical, magnetic and optical properties of SnO2 for sensing devices and photovoltaic applications.
Tin oxide; Photovoltaic; Thin film; Gas sensors
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