Immunomodulatory effect of rutin, catechin, and hesperidin on macrophage function

Ganeshpurkar, Aditya ; Saluja, Ajay


The inflammation is observed by a sequence of comprehensive, correlated prevalence which causes enrollment of macrophages along with by removal of foreign particles and instigation of tissue repair. Though, massive release of chemokine and cytokines from macrophages can cause the progression of auto-inflammation and auto-immune diseases. The control overproduction of these mediators without damaging macrophages seems to be a novel strategy to control inflammation. Plants have been an integral part of the health-care system since ancient times. Many modern-day pharmaceuticals find their origin from phytochemicals. Rutin, catechin, and hesperidin are well-recognized for analgesic, anti-inflammatory and antiarthritic effects. Scientific reports rationalize their protective effect on humoral and cell-mediated immunity. The present study is focused to determine the immunomodulatory effect of rutin, catechin, and hesperidin on macrophage function. Rat peritoneal macrophages were harvested and cultured in the presence of lipopolysaccharides (LPS) and hesperidin. MTT assay was performed to determine macrophage viability. The levels of TNF-α, IL-1β, IL-6 were determined by ELISA kits whereas NO levels were determined by Griess method. The results of the present study revealed a decrease in levels of TNF-α, IL-1β, IL-6 and NO in LPS treated groups. In conclusion, LPS activated the macrophage by promoting the production of immune mediators, whereas rutin, catechin, and hesperidin treatment showed anti-inflammatory activities by suppressing the cytokine production in rat macrophages.


Flavonoids; Interleukin 1β; Interleukin 6; Modulation; Nitric oxide; Tumor necrosis factor-α

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