Impact of Metal and Metal Oxide Nanoparticles on Male Reproductive System: A Comprehensive Review
Technological advancements and increased use of chemically hazardous materials have become a concern for human health. Environmental pollutants such as engineered metal and metal oxide nanoparticles (M&MONPs) are reported to contribute to significant health-related problems, particularly reproductive health. Reduction in male individuals' reproductive potential is one of the important causes of concern. Literature suggests that exposure to M&MONPs considerably impacts alteration in male reproductive parameters. Therefore, it is required to analyze and understand their effects on male reproductive toxicity. Oxidative stress and changes in redox equilibrium are the significant factors via M&MONPs induce changes in sperm parameters or the reproductive system. Act as endocrine disruptors and interfere with the secretion and function of reproductive hormones such as testosterone and LH, affecting spermatogenesis. Likewise, M&MONPs accumulate in organs as they can pass through the blood-testis barrier, affect Sertoli and Leydig cells, and cause reproductive dysfunction. In this review, we have analyzed the effects of M&MONPs on the male reproductive system and the underlying mechanism of action
Metal and metal oxide nanoparticles; male reproductive system; sperm; reactive oxygen species; oxidative stress
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