Computer-Aided vaccine design for selected positive-sense single stranded RNA viruses
Spontaneous mutations and lack of replication fidelity in positive-sense single stranded RNA viruses (+ssRNA virus) result in emergence of genetic variants with diverse viral morphogenesis and surface proteins that affect its antigenicity. This high mutability in +ssRNA viruses has induced antiviral drug resistance and ability to overcome vaccines that subsequently resulted in rapid viral evolution and high mortality rate in human and livestock. Computer aided vaccine design and immunoinformatics play a crucial role in expediting the vaccine production protocols, antibody production and identifying suitable immunogenic regions or epitopes from the genome sequences of the pathogens. T cell and B cell epitopes can be identified in pathogens by immunoinformatics algorithms and methods that enhance the analysis of protective immunity, vaccine safety, immunity modelling and vaccine efficacy. This rapid and cost-effective computational vaccine design promotes development of potential vaccine that could induce immune response in host against rapidly mutating pathogens like +ssRNA viruses. Epitope-based vaccine is a striking concept that has been widely employed in recent years to construct vaccines targeting rapidly mutating +ssRNA viruses. Therefore, the present review provides an overview about the current progress and methodology in computer-aided vaccine design for the most notable +ssRNA viruses namely Hepatitis C virus, Dengue virus, Chikungunya virus and Coronaviruses. This review also highlights the applications of various immunoinformatics tools for vaccine design and for modelling immune response against +ssRNA viruses.
Epitope prediction; Immunoinformatics; Hepatitis C virus; Dengue virus; Chikungunya virus; Coronaviruses
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