Kinetic study of synergistic effect of multi-site phase transfer catalysis and ultrasound irradiation for the synthesis of 1, 3-bis (4-nitrophenoxy) benzene
Phase transfer catalysis along with ultrasound technique proved to be useful in various organic heterogeneous reactions and recognized as a viable environmentally friendly. The influence of ultrasonic irradiation associated with a new multi site phase transfer catalyst (MPTC) on the synthesis of 1,3-bis(4-nitro phenoxy)benzene from 1,3-dihydroxy benzene with 1-chloro-4-nitrobenzene (CNB) under heterogeneous solid-liquid condition using sodium hydroxide as a base at 750C has been studied. The higher conversion of 1-chloro-4-nitrobenzene has been achieved by using the synergistic condition of ultrasonic irradiation (40 kHz, 300W) and multi-site phase transfer catalyst in better efficacy. The reaction rate enhance by decrease the volume of water. The apparent the reaction rate was found to be pseudo-first order kinetics. The apparent rate constant was increased linearly with the increase in the concentration of various parameters multi-site phase transfer catalyst, sodium hydroxide ultrasonic effect, stirring speed and temperature from Arrhenius plot the apparent activation energy (Ea) was also calculated.
1-Chloro-4-nitrobenzene; Interfacial reaction; MPTC; Ultrasound irradiation
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