Sunan candlenut shells activated carbon: Preparation, characterization, and application adsorption of Rhodamine B

Muttaqii, Muhammad Al


The activated carbon has been produced from Sunan candlenut shells wastes produced by chemical activation using potassium hydroxide as an activating agent. The activated carbon has been characterized by Brunauer-Emmett-Teller (BET), X-Ray Diffraction (XRD), Scanning Electron Microscope-Energy Dispersive X-Ray (SEM-EDX), Fourier-TransformInfrared (FT-IR), and the results compared with those of the Sunan candlenut shell used as raw material. The activatedcarbon produced used as an adsorbent in the Rhodamine B adsorption process. Several examined factors that can affect theadsorption process, such as pH, contact time, and adsorbate concentration, have been studied. The yield of activated carbonfrom Sunan candlenut shells obtained is 74.05%. The activated carbon with the chemical process has characteristicadsorption-desorption isotherms of type IV with mesoporous pore size. The surface area of activated carbon of 355.563 m2/gand the pore size of 2.1258 nm. The functional groups from FTIR contain C≡C and C=O at a wave number of 2161.55 cm-1and 1980-1994 cm-1, respectively. The results also show the percent adsorption of rhodamine B is 98.75% and the initialmaximum adsorbate concentration of 30 ppm at pH 4 for 60 minutes.


Activated carbon; Adsorption; Sunan candlenut; Rhodamine B

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