Acute toxicity of fluoride and aluminium on the freshwater fish, Cyprinus carpio L

Das, Ram Krishna; Ray, Nilay


Fluoride is a trace element which has beneficial effect at lower concentration but detrimental at higher concentration. The fluoride contamination in ground water is a major global problem. Similarly, aluminium is the most abundant metal of the earth, highly toxic to all organisms. In the present study, we investigated the acute toxicity of fluoride and aluminium on three month old fingerlings of Cyprinus carpio L. in hard water (Hardness 125 mg/L of CaCO3) under static renewal bioassay. The 96 h LC50 value of the fluoride and aluminium were 675.615 and 224.214 mg/L, respectively. There was a significant correlation (P <0.01) between mortality rate of C. carpio with all concentrations of fluoride as well as aluminium. The exposure time (24, 48, 72 and 96 h) and different concentration of fluoride (680, 684, 686 and 692 mg/L) and aluminium (228, 229, 231 and 232 mg/L) was also significantly correlated (P <0.05). The different abnormal behaviour displayed by the fluoride and aluminium exposed fishes were erratic swimming movements, rapid opercular activity and excessive secretion of mucous. The safe level of concentrations of fluoride and aluminium were 6.75 and 2.24 µg/L, respectively. The LC50 values of fluoride and aluminium of the present study may be useful in deriving water quality standards in West Bengal.


Aquatic pollution; Dental fluorosis; Indian major carp; Opercula; Sodium fluoride; Water toxicity

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