Heavy metal accumulation in Trichogaster fasciata (Bloch & Schneider) from the river Ganges and its tributaries: A health concern for fish-consuming populations

Bano, Farah ; Ansari, Jamal Akhtar; Serajuddin, M

Abstract

Accumulation of metal in fish flesh is increasing because of heavy metal pollution in rivers of India, which poses significant threat to the consumers’ health. Here, we studied the concentrations of heavy metals [cadmium (Cd), chromium (Cr), copper (Cu), lead (Pb) and zinc (Zn)] in the muscle tissues of Banded or Striped gourami, Trichogaster fasciata Bloch & Schneider collected from the river Ganges and its tributaries in order to assess the risk the consumers are put to. The order of metal accumulation (Zn>Pb>Cu>Cr>Cd) was found to be the same in both the fish muscle and the water samples. Significant values of correlation of coefficient (R = 0.9184-0.9612) of length-weight relationship and mean condition factor ranging between 1.876-2.420 g/cm3 of different populations of the fish were recorded. All metal concentration was negatively correlated with the fish size and condition factor except Zn in Ghaghara and Yamuna (P <0.05) and Pb in the Ganges (P <0.05) and Yamuna (P <0.001). Estimated daily intakes by the fish-eating inhabitants were lower than the maximum tolerable daily intake value except for that of Zn. The target hazard quotient and health index showed that intake of these heavy metals was quite safe by the fish consuming local populations including both the male and females. This study could be used as an essential piece of information for the management purposes of river Ganga to prevent heavy metal pollution and risk associated with it.

Keyword(s)

Aquatic pollution; Banded gourami; Condition factor; Inductively coupled plasma-optical emission spectrometry; Metal toxicity; Striped gourami

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