Garlic ameliorates long-term pre-diabetes induced retinal abnormalities
in high fructose fed rat model

Kommula, Sivakesava Rao; Chekkilla, Uday Kumar; Ganugula, Raghu ; Patil, Madhoosudan Anant; Vadakattu, Sai Santhosh; Myadara, Srinivas ; Putcha, Uday Kumar; Ramavat, Ravindar Naik; Ponday, Laxmi Rajkumar; Tamana, Raghava Rao; Palla, Suryanarayana


Retinopathy is one of the micro vascular complications of diabetes and can also be observed in pre-diabetic state. However, there are only limited studies available on the pathophysiology of retinopathy in pre-diabetic state and its preventive strategies. In this study, we investigated the retinal functional, structural and molecular alterations using high fructose (HF) induced pre-diabetic rat model and also the protective role of garlic. Feeding of HF to Wistar NIN (WNIN) rats had developed insulin resistance (IR) and impaired glucose tolerance (IGT) by three months, while retinal functional abnormalities by ten months as evidenced by decrease of Electroretinogram (ERG) scotopic, photopic b-wave amplitudes, oscillatory potentials (OPs) when compared to controls. Supplementation of garlic (3%) to HF+G group rats had marginally protected these changes. Elevated expression of glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP), vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF), aldose reductase (AR) and decreased rhodopsin (Rho) in HF group rats as evidenced by immunohistochemistry, immunoblot methods, which were further supported by gene expression studies, indicate the initiation of retinal abnormalities. Increased immune-fluorescence signal of carboxymethyl lysine (CML-KLH) and 4-hydroxynanoenol (4-HNE) in retina of HF group rats indicate the association of glycation and oxidative stress, respectively. Early intervention of garlic to HF+G group rats attenuated retinal functional, structural, and molecular abnormalities


Alium sativum, Glycation, Impaired glucose tolerance, Insulin resistance, Oxidative stress, Polyol pathway, Retinopathy

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