Nutritional and anti-nutritional components of some selected edible mushroom species
The present investigation is carried on nutritional and anti-nutritional components in edible mushroom species of Agaricus bisporus, Calocybe indica, Lentinula edodes, Macrocybe gigantea (MA1), M. gigantea (MA2) and Lentinus sajor-caju syn. Pleurotus sajor-caju. Moisture content, total sugars, reducing sugars, protein content, ash content, extracellular enzymes (amylase, lipase and protease), minerals, tannins and phytic acid were assayed. All the species investigated contained considerable quantity of all nutritional and were low in anti-nutritional components. The values (mg/g) ranged from 38.66-47.73 for total carbohydrates, 9.02-17.77 for reducing sugars and 6.50-9.66 for total ash content. Protein content (g/100 g dry weight) ranged from 6.43 in L. sajor-caju to 26.2 in L. edodes. Among the minerals, phosphorus is the most abundant element in all mushroom species and it was maximum (944.5) in M. gigantea (MA2). The macronutrients (mg/100 g dry weight) in different mushroom species ranged between 345.8-944.5 (P), 21.8-68.8 (Ca) and 6.4-45.63 (Mg), while micronutrients ranged between 14.5-46.0 (Fe), 1.31-15.9 (Cu), 1.1-3.7 (Mn), 7.7-28.2 (Zn), 0.14-2.1 (Cr) and 0.004-0.39 (Co). None of the toxic elements like As, Hg or Pb was detected in any species. The anti-nutritional components like tannins (0.41-0.57 mg/g) and phytic acid (0.11-0.19 mg/g) were found below the threshold limits. The extracellular hydrolytic enzymes activity (mm) was maximum and minimum in L. edodes (34.1) and A. bisporus (9.16); L. sajor-caju (41.3) and M. gigantea (MA2) (22.3); and C. indica (90.0) and A. bisporus (34.6) for amylase, lipase and protease, respectively. The present study indicate that A. bisporus contain high nutrition (in terms of moisture content, total sugar, ash content, copper, zinc, iron and manganese) and low tannins and phytic acid content while C. indica contained least in all nutrition except protease activity.
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