Nutritional and bioactive potential of coastal sand dune wild legume Canavalia maritima (Aubl.) Thou.− An overview
The wild legume Canavalia maritima (Aubl.) Thou. (Fabaceae) is a mat-forming creeper widely distributed in coastal sand dunes of pantropical region and prevents coastal erosion. Their seeds are rich in proteins (29-34%), carbohydrates (53-63%), dietary fibre (1-7.3%), energy (1490-1680 kJ/100 g), minerals and essential amino acids required in human diet. Seeds without seed coat, sprouted seeds (without seed coat) ripened beans (with intact seed coat and testa) and tender pods are nutraceutically valuable. Drastic reduction of globulin especially in cooked sprouted seeds (4.9-18.7 vs. 0-0.5%) indicate decreased antinutritional component and the in vitro protein digestibility raised significantly in cooked sprouted seeds (46 vs. 73%). The antinutritional principles of C. maritima especially lectin (ConM) and non-protein amino acid canavanine possess anticancer and antiviral properties. The ConM is useful as autophagic, antihepatomic (immunomodulation), stimulation of mitosis, inhibition of lymphocyte cap and patch formation (due to anti-immunoglobulin properties). Proteins of C. maritima seeds possess desired functional properties like oil-absorption, water-absorption, gelation, emulsion and foam formation, which is helpful in formulating fabricated foods. There is ample scope to use various landraces, germplasm and varieties of C. maritima for nutritional and health benefits of humans as well as livestock. In view of indigenous alternative potential natural resource of future, the current review provides an overview on the nutritional, antinutritional and bioactive potential of C. maritima.
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