Suppression of Pro-Inflammatory Cytokines and Mediators Production by Ginger (Zingiber officinale) Ethanolic Extract and Gingerol in Lipopolysaccharide-Induced RAW264.7 Murine Macrophage Cells
Chronic inflammation could lead to several life-threatening diseases such as cancer and cardiovascular diseases. Ginger (Zingiber officinale) has been used for many years to treat various diseases and health problems, including inflammation. This study was conducted to assess ginger ethanolic extract (GEE) and its compound gingerol potential as anti-inflammatory agent by evaluating the concentration of pro-inflammatory cytokines and mediators such as TNF-α, IL-1β, IL-6, COX-2, and NO in LPS-induced RAW 264.7 cells. The safe concentration of GEE and gingerol for the RAW 264.7 cells were evaluated using 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-5-(3-carboxymethoxyphenyl)-2-(4-sulfophenyl)-2H-tetrazolium (MTS) assay. The quantification of TNF-α, IL-1β, IL-6, COX-2, and NO was conducted based on ELISA method. GEE and gingerol were able to inhibit TNF-α, IL-1β, IL-6, COX-2, and NO production in LPS-induced RAW 264.7 cells. GEE has better anti-inflammatory activity than gingerol, with GEE in concentration of 50 µg/ml has the highest inhibition activity over positive control. Ginger (Zingiber officinale) ethanolic extract exhibited good anti-inflammatory properties through reduction of pro-inflammatory mediators such as TNF-α, IL-1β, IL-6, COX-2 and NO. Thus, it has high potential in the treatment of inflammatory-related diseases.
Cytokines; Gingerol; Inflammation; Macrophage; Zingiber officinale,.
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