Physical properties and food value of rice varieties of Western Himalaya
Six rice varieties namely Bhrigu Dhan, Begami, Desi Dhan, Paddy Karad, Sukara Dhan and Lal Dhan grown in the westeren Himalaya, as a dehulled rice grain, were evaluated with the aim of establishing their specific food value. Length, breadth, length/breadth ratio, thousand -kernel weight, density, and bulk density of all varieties were in the range of 7.80-8.70 (mm), 3.12-3.68 (mm), 2.15-2.74,13.79-28.66 (g), 0.10-1.25 (g/mL) and 0.477-0.657 (g/mL), respectively. Maximum length (8.70 mm), 1000 kernel weight (28.66 g) and bulk density (1.25g/mL) were observed for Bhrigu Dhan. Moisture content, crude fat, crude fibre and ash, were in the range of 11.21 to 12.92, 2.35 to 3.26, 2.22 to 2.69 and 1.60 to 1.79 per cent, respectively on dry weight basis. The highest and lowest value for crude protein was recorded in Desi Dhan (12.00%) and Bhrigu Dhan (7.66 %), respectively; and total carbohydrates were observed highest in Bhrigu Dhan (86.88%) and lowest in Desi Dhan (82.44%). The starch content ranged between 81.63 to 88.56%. The total sugar content was highest in Sukara Dhan (1.40%) followed by Desi Dhan (1.35%), Lal Dhan (1.32%), Paddy Karad (1.29%), Begami (1.25%) and minimum was in Bhrigu Dhan (1.05%), respectively. The highest content of free fatty acid was present in Begami (0.377%) and minimum in Sukara Dhan (0.293%) whereas, the maximum amount of free amino acid was present in Bhrigu Dhan (0.443% as glycine) and minimum was present in Begami (0.333% as glycine). Begami had highest content of iron and zinc (8.95 and 9.77 mg/100gm). However maximum values for phosphorus and copper were observed for Sukara Dhan 311.05 and 3.020 mg/100 g respectively. The maximum content of magnesium was observed in Paddy Karad 137.33 mg/100 g and manganese in Bhrigu Dhan 3.49 mg/100 g. The highest total phenolic content observed in Lal Dhan (297.45 mg GAE/100 g) and lowest in Begami (231.66 mg GAE/100 g). The amylose content of red rice varieties varied from 23.56 to 26.55%. Highest amylose value was recorded in Lal Dhan (26.55%) and lowest in Sukara Dhan (23.56%). The data for the sensory evaluation of cooked red rice revealed that the appearance score was highest in variety Lal Dhan, and Paddy Karad.
Anti-nutritional factors; Cooking quality; Flavonoid content; Rheological properties; Sensory evaluation; Total phenols.
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