Comparison of ultrasonic assist head space solid-phase microextraction and classic hydrodistillation methods for the identification of essential oil in fruits and leaves of Pistacia atlantica
Pistacia atlantica Desf. is one of the three species growing in Iran. The essential oil compounds from aerial (fruits and leaves) of P. atlantica were obtained by hydrodistillation (HD) and analyzed using GC-MS. The results of two different methods, hydrodistillation and ultrasonic assist headspace solid-phase microextraction (UA-HS-SPME) were compared. The GC-MS analysis identified 40 and 36 components of essential oils in fruits and leaves extracted using HD, respectively. The oil contained a high concentration of monoterpenes, and the main constituents were Germacrene D (9.29 %), Myrcene (9.3 %) in fruits and Myrcene (8.91 %), Germacrene D (7.89 %) in leaves. A total of 43 components were identified by UA-HS-SPME technique in both the fruits and leaves where the major components in fruits were Germacrene D (12.06 %), Myrcene (12.01 %). The volatile components, such as Germacrene D (10.53 %), Myrcene (10.18 %) were found to be major volatile constituents in leaves. UA-HS-SPME analysis showed more type and concentration of different compounds in the studied plant. For example, Germacrene D, Myrcene, Terpinen-4-ol compounds were well represented in the aerial parts (fruits and leaves). Moreover, HS-SPME allowed the occurrence of α-Cubebene, α-Ylangene and α-Farnesene as the main component in P. atlantica fruits and the leaves, but it was not detected in the HD method. Compared to the conventional technique, HD and UA-HS-SPME method were established short extraction time and high extraction efficiency.
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