Anti-nephrolithiatic potential and the protective role of saponin-rich extract of Dianthus basuticus against acetaminophen-induced damage in HEK293 cells

Nafiu, Mikhail Olugbemiro; Ashafa, Anofi Omotayo Tom; Sabiu, Saheed


Saponins have found ethnomedicinal applications against a number of diseases including oxidative stress, urinary and kidney ailments. This study investigated antioxidant, anti-nephrolithiatic and nephroprotective properties of saponin-rich extract of Dianthus basuticus in vitro. While nephroprotective activity was demonstrated against acetaminophen-mediated toxicity in HEK293 cells using the MTT method, its inhibition of calcium oxalate (CaOx) nucleation was evaluated in the anti-nephrolithiatic study. The antioxidant effect was demonstrated against OH and lipid peroxide radicals. The significant (p <0.05) acetaminophen-induced reduction of viable cells in the nephrotoxic cells following 24 hours incubation was reverted and cell mortality dropped from 81.98 to 13.15 % at 125 µg/mL dose of the extract.  The extract significantly inhibited CaOx nucleation crystals in a dose-related manner with the highest dose being 51.11 % potent. The inhibitory effect of the extract had an overall IC50 of 1.03 µg/mL (R2= 0.9698) which is corroborated by the degree of turbidity of the treated crystals solutions. The overall effects elicited by the extract may be attributed to its antioxidant activity which was concentration-related with the highest dose exhibiting the most potent effect (IC50: 0.45–0.63 µg/mL) when compared with vitamin C (IC50: 0.49–0.69 mg/mL). Hence, D. basuticus is potentially a new lead agent in the management of nephrolithiasis and renal disorders.


Calcium oxalate; Dianthus basuticus; HEK293 cell; Hoechst 33342; MTT; Nephrolithiasis

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