Evaluation of acute toxicity and intestinal transit time of Croton tiglium L. seeds
The seeds of Jayapala (Croton tiglium L.) (Euphorbiaceae) is classified under Upavisha in classical texts of Ayurveda known for its purgative action and is being used in the management of several disorders. Ayurvedic Pharmacopoeia of India recommends its Shodhana prior to its internal administration. The present study was planned with an aim to evaluate the acute toxicity of raw and Shodhita seeds of Croton tiglium L. and intestinal transit time of Shodhita seeds on experimental animals. Acute oral toxicity study for Raw Jayapala (RJ) and Shodhita Jayapala (SJ) seed sample were carried out following OECD guidelines. Rats were administered a single dose of 2000 mg/kg orally and then observed individually for the first 30 mins, then over a period of every 2 hours for 24 hours and at least once daily for 14 days. General behaviour, adverse effects and mortality were observed throughout the experimental period. Intestinal transit time in mice was carried out at the lower dose of 2.54 mg/kg and the higher dose of 7.61 mg/kg by adopting Kaolin expulsion test and latency of the onset of kaolin expulsion in faecal matter. The results showed that the raw Jayapala produced mortality in a single oral dose of 2000 mg/kg while Shodhita Jayapala did not Jayapala produce any mortality and toxicity except behavioural changes and diarrhoea at the same dose level. In kaolin expulsion test, Shodhita Jayapala produced marked increase in intestinal motility in mice among which higher dose of the drug was found better which was proved by fast clearance of kaolin in faecal pellet in comparison to control group. Oral acute toxicity study suggests that Shodhana (processing/purifying) process must be advocated for use of Jayapala to eliminate the untoward effects. Further, Shodhita (processed) Jayapala seeds have markedly increased the intestinal motility confirms the Virechana (purgation) karma of drug in mice.
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