Protective effect of ethanolic leaf extract of Alphonsea sclerocarpa against ethylene glycol induced urolithiasis in rats
Alphonsea sclerocarpa Thwaites belonging to the family Annonaceae is a small tree, which grows up to 10-15 m tall the leaves are simple and alternate. Despite its medicinal properties the plant seems to be less explored and hence this research aims at exploring the antiurolithiatic activity of ethanolic leaf extract of A. sclerocarpa on ethylene glycol induced urolithiasis in rats. A. sclerocarpa leaf powder was extracted using ethanol. The effect of ethanolic leaf extract of A. sclerocarpa (250 and 500 mg/kg, p.o.) was studied in experimentally induced renal stone in rats by in vivo model. Ethylene glycol model (0.75% in drinking water, for 28 days) was used for renal stone induction. The blood, urine and kidney samples were used for various parameters. The concentration of calcium, oxalate, phosphorus, creatinine and blood urea nitrogen was observed in each group. The phytochemical analysis was carried out to detect the presence of secondary metabolites like saponins and flavonoids in the ethanolic extract of A. sclerocarpa leaf extract. In ethylene glycol (0.75% v/v) treated animal model ethanolic extract of A. sclerocarpa leaf extract showed significant results on stone promoters (calcium oxalate, inorganic phosphate and sodium), kidney function parameters (uric acid, blood urea nitrogen, creatinine). On the basis of biochemical parameters and histopathological study it was confirmed that A. sclerocarpa leaf extract protected the renal cells from oxidative stress and injury induce by calcium oxalate crystals. The investigation of ethanolic extract of A. sclerocarpa leaf has shown promising antiurolithiatic activity and support folklore claims of these plants as antiurolithiatic. The mechanism of action of these plants for antiurolithiatic is apparently related to increased diuresis and lowering of urinary concentrations of stone-forming constituents, though it should be confirmed by the extensive exploratory studies.
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