Inhibition of metastasis and suppression of pERK1/2 and pFAK expression by Solanum xanthocarpum crude extracts in human lung cancer cell line A549 in vitro
Solanum xanthocarpum is an important part of natural remedies for lung in Ayurveda. Lung cancer metastasis is a major challenge in the present time. Expressions and activation of focal adhesion kinase (FAK) and extracellular receptor kinases 1 and 2 (ERK1/2) are key checkpoints in cancer which lead to an invasion, epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT) and metastatic progression. In this study, the efficacy of the whole plant and root crude extracts prepared in ethyl acetate and chloroform on highly metastatic lung cancer cell line A549 was evaluated. The effect of crude extracts on cell migration was scrutinized using transwell migration assessment. The phosphorylated forms of proteins, pFAK and pERK1/2 levels, were estimated using ELISA. Zymography technique was utilized to evaluate the activities of MMP-2 and MMP-9 proteins. The EMT markers, vimentin and N-cadherin gene expressions were analyzed using semi-quantitative RT-PCR. The extracts significantly reduced single-cell migration. The expression levels of pFAK and pERK1/2 notably decreased and FAK and ERK1/2 remained unchanged. Moreover, gelatinase activity, vimentin and N-cadherin expression were also significantly reduced in treated cells compared to untreated cells. The crude extracts of S. xanthocarpum impaired the metastatic progression of A549 cells in vitro.
A549; EMT; ERK; FAK; Kantakari; Lung cancer; Metastasis; Solanum xanthocarpum.
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