Stingless bees and Mangifera indica: A close relationship?
Propolis is a bee product with various biological activities and phytochemical compositions. This study was aimed to identify the chemical composition and botanical origin of Indonesian stingless bees propolis produced by Tetragonula laeviceps in Banten and Heterotrigona itama in South Kalimantan, respectively. Propolis extracts were prepared using 70% ethanol and chloroform. The extracts were analysed by GC/MS after silylation. The results showed that the studied stingless bee propolis contained a relatively high amount of sugars, probably due to the harvesting method used. Furthermore, triterpenes were found as the main constituents followed by phenolic lipids. Both samples were Mangifera indica type propolis with typical compounds, including cycloartenol, isomangiferolic acid, mangiferolic acid, ambolic acid, alk(en)ylphenols, alk(en)ylresorcinols, and anacardic acids. Therefore, M. indica might be a preferred botanical source of propolis from a tropical zone. In addition, the suctioning method in harvesting the stingless bee honey could be recommended to avoid high content of sugar and sugar derivatives.
Botanical origin; Chemical composition; Mangifera indica; Stingless bee propolis
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