Isolation and characterization of hydroxyapatite powder from the scale of freshwater fish Labeo rohita using green technology

Sarkar, Chaitali ; Das, Madhusweta


The objective of the present work was to isolate and characterize hydroxyapatite (HAP) from Labeo rohita scale using green technology. The method used only 0.6% KOH solution for isolation, which did not generate any spent liquid for disposal to the environment. Investigation through thermogravimetric analysis, X-ray diffraction study, scanning electron microscopy, energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy, and particle size distribution measurement was carried out for characterization of HAP. The powder after isolation from scale contained < 7% organic matter and could be converted to thermally stable perfectly crystalline pure HAP without any organic impurity by exposition to 1000 °C for only 1 h. The heated HAP powder had a Ca:P ratio of 1.52 and indicated the grains to be in submicron size but remaining in soft agglomerated condition with 50% of the mass passing through ≈ 167 µm.


Green technology; Hydroxyapatite; Labeo rohita scale; Organic matter.

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