The uniqueness of isolation of nutmeg essential oil from nutmeg seeds (Myristica fragrans Houtt.) and its effects on physical and chemical properties
Isolation of nutmeg essential oil from nutmeg seeds (Myristica fragrans Houtt.) using the steam distillation method is a unique technique because nutmeg essential oil contains heavy and light oil. Nutmeg essential oil is the main product produced by nutmeg (Myristica fragrans), isolated by the steam distillation method. The main component of nutmeg essential oil is myristicin and several other typical compounds of essential oils. This study discusses the results of steam distillation from nutmeg seeds, characterizing nutmeg essential oils, and analyzing their suitability for INS number 06-2388-2006. From the Gas Chromatography-Mass Spectrometry (GC/MS) results, the main content of nutmeg essential oil is myristicin (30.30%) and followed by α-Pinene (12.01%). The physical characteristics of nutmeg essential oil are colourless. They have a distinctive scent of nutmeg oil, a density of 0.8822 g/mL, a refractive index of 1.4781, solubility in ethanol 90% obtained at a concentration ratio of 1:3, optical rotation (+) 24,3714o, and the remaining evaporation is 1.72%. It can see that the overall results of this nutmeg essential oil quality test are following the Indonesian National Standard (INS) number 06-2388-2006 (INS No. 06-2388-2006). From this research, it can conclude that the steam distillation method for 24 hours with 12 hours without pressure and 12 hours last with pressure can be used as a reference method for the isolation of nutmeg essential oil.
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