Amelioration of high levels of serum kidney function biomarkers by Vernonia amygdalina in monosodium glutamate induced rats

Onwubiko, Grace Nene; Nwankwo, Nicodemus Emeka; Egbuonu, Anthony Cemaluk Chinedum; Soribe, Blessing Amarachi; Okeke, Emmanuel Sunday; Eze, Chukwuemeka Joseph

Abstract

Monosodium Glutamate (MSG), as a food seasoning agent, even at low doses, has been found to exert exceeding toxic effect on the body system when used for a prolonged time. This study was aimed at investigating the effect of varying doses of Vernonia amygdalina stem extract on MSG-induced alteration of some kidney function parameters in rats. Twenty (20) adult male Albino rats (weighing 90-180 g), divided into five groups of four rats each, were used for the study. Some kidney function parameters and histological examination of kidney tissues were determined according to standard methods. The mineral and vitamin contents of V. amygdalina stem were also determined. In rats administered with MSG (8 mg/kg), there were significant (P <0.05) increases in the serum urea and creatinine but decreased albumin concentrations compared to rats administered with normal saline. MSG co-administration with extract (400 mg/kg) significantly decreased serum urea and creatinine concentrations. Minerals such as zinc, sodium and iron and vitamins A, C and E were found to be present in the stem extract. Histological examination of the kidney tissues of MSG-administered groups showed signs of toxicity but were much lesser in MSG co-treatment with the extract. These findings suggest that V. amygdalina ameliorated MSG-induced toxicity on the kidney functionality and this could be attributed to the presence of the antioxidant vitamins and some minerals as well as other bio-compounds present in the plant’s stem extract.


Keyword(s)

Ethanol extract; Kidney functionality; Minerals; Monosodium glutamate; Vernonia amygdalina; Vitamins.

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