Protective effect of eugenol from Mesua ferrea on the oxidative damages caused by 5-fluorouracil in PBMC cells
5-Fluorouracil (5-FU), a pyrimidine analogue with fluorine at C5 position, is one of the chemotherapy drugs used to treat various cancers. Though 5-FU is a very promising anticancer drug, it can cause side effects such as coronary thrombosis, intestinal mucositis, cognitive impairment, and anaemia through the generation of free radicals, damages the normal cells and also leads to apoptosis. To overcome such toxic effects of 5-FU, in the present work we have explored the cytoprotective potential of eugenol, the antioxidant active compound available in ethanolic extract of an Indian herbal drug Mesua ferrea. Aim of the present study was to evaluate the cytoprotective effect of eugenol against 5-FU toxicity in peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC). Based on MTT assay, it is noticed that eugenol significantly prevents the toxicity of 5-FU (73%) in PBMC cells. Eugenol has lowered the generation of intra-cellular ROS (20035.5 AU) when compared to 5-FU treated cells (58918.5 AU). Eugenol exhibited remarkable inhibition of lipid peroxidation (43%) and cell membrane damage (LDH release: 488.02 IU/L). Thus, eugenol prevents apoptosis-induced cell death when compared with 5-FU in PBMC cells and hence it can be used to overcome the cytotoxicity caused by 5-FU and it warrants further study.
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