Biologically active Naneoicglycolate of Aristolochia littoralis Parodi seed extract with anti-bacterial activity induces cytotoxicity and apoptosis in A431 human skin cancer cell line
Aristolochia littoralis Parodi is an important traditional medicinal plant known for centuries. In this study, antibacterial and anti-cancerous properties of seeds of this plant were investigated. Experimentally chloroform, ethanol, and aqueous extracts were screened for antibacterial activity against Escherichia coli and Staphylococcus aureus. The extracts were further analyzed for anticancer activity against human skin carcinoma A431 cell lines by 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2-5- diphenyl tetrazolium bromide (MTT). The fraction comprising the biomolecule responsible for anticancerous activity was purified by TLC and HPLC. It was subjected to 1H NMR, 13C NMR, and Mass spectrophotometer for structural elucidation. The purified active principle was quantitatively evaluated for inducing apoptosis in A431 skin cancer cell line by flow cytometry analysis. Phytochemical analysis of solvent extracts revealed the presence of alkaloids, steroids, carbohydrates, tannins, and resins. Antibacterial activity was observed in the aqueous and ethanol extracts against the test pathogenic bacteria. Among the solvent extracts, chloroform extract revealed a highly significant anticancer/cytotoxic activity on A431 cell lines. The data revealed that the bioactive principle present in the A. littoralis Parodi seed is naneoicglycolate with molecular formula C20H34O4 and was found to be highly cytotoxic at IC50 81.02 µg\mL against A431 cell line. The present study is successful in identifying a novel bioactive principle from an underutilized plant/weed with significant anticancer activity.
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