Mango (Mangifera indica L.) kernel flour as a potential ingredient in the development of composite flour bread
Fruit residues and seed flours have been used to supplement food and feed because of their nutrient dense composition. The present study was undertaken to identify the feasibility of utilizing cereal-legume-seed kernel composite flour in preparation of bread. A composite flour was prepared using refined wheat flour (WF), soy flour (SF), sprouted mung bean flour (MF) and mango kernel flour (MKF). Three variations of composite flour were used for preparation of experimental breads, V-I (WF: SF: MF: MKF= 85:5:5:5), V-II (WF: SF: MF: MKF= 70:10:10:10) and V-III (WF: SF: MF: MKF= 60:14:13:13). Refined wheat flour bread served as control for the study. Pertinent physico-chemical, functional and organoleptic attributes were studied in composite flour variations and their bread preparations. Baking losses were estimated in experimental breads. Physical characteristics of the bread variations revealed a percentage decrease in loaf height (14%), weight (1.25%) and volume (25%) with a subsequent increase in mango kernel flour incorporation. Experimental variations maintained an average score of 7.23±0.86in comparison with the control (7.5±0.5) on a 9 point hedonic rating scale. V-I scored 5% higher than the control. The present study highlighted the significant utilization of mango seed kernel (‘Alphonso’ variety) in formulation and nutrient enrichment of bread.
Composite flour, Legume, Mango kernel, Baking loss, Bread.
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