Pharmacognosy and quality characterization of Balanites aegyptiaca (L.) Delile fruits

Sunil Kumar, Koppala Narayana; Sangeetha, Billadi ; Suchitra, Prabhu ; Ravishankar, Basavaiah ; Yashovarma, Betkeri


Fruits of Balanites aegyptiaca (L.) Delile syn. B. roxburghii Planch (Family Balanitaceae) is considered as source of Ingudi of Ayurveda. It is a thorny tree with ovoid pulpy drupe type of fruit. In Ayurveda, Ingudi bark, leaf and fruits are said to be beneficial as blood purifier, diuretic, in leprosy, poisoning, ulcers, worm infestation, leucoderma, anorexia and constipation. Seed extract is hypotensive and the seed oil is used for burns and freckles. The unripe fruits are cathartic and the ripe ones are used in whooping cough and skin troubles. The fruits are also reported to possess antihperglycemic activity. In the present study, systematic pharmacognostical evaluation of ripe fruits has been carried out as per standard methodologies used for drug standardisation. Macroscopical, microscopical and physico-chemical features of the fruit have been documented. Preliminary phytochemical investigations indicated presence of carbohydrates, coumarins, triterpenoids and saponins. HPTLC fingerprint profile has been developed for methanol extract of pulp using diosgenin as standard. The result obtained from standardization of fruit established set diagnostic tests to authenticate genuine fruits. These parameters can be utilized for rapid identification of the drug as whole and as powder.


Balanites aegyptiaca (L.) Delile, Diosgenin, Fruit pulp, HPTLC, Macroscopy, Microscopy, Physico-chemical, Quality standards

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