Determination of defect density, crystallite size and number of graphene layers in graphene analogues using X-ray diffraction and Raman spectroscopy

Saini, Parveen ; Sharma, Rahul ; Chadha, Neakanshika


In this study, X-ray diffraction and Raman spectroscopic techniques have been wielded for determination of number of graphene layers per domain, crystallite size, interlayer spacing and defect density in bulk samples of chemically synthesized graphitic oxide (GrO) and reduced GrO (RGrO). Particularly, the ready to use and general mathematical equations have been presented for obtaining above mentioned parameters directly using the full width half maxima (FWHM) of XRD peaks and intensity ratios of Raman D- and G-bands. The results reflect that upon reduction, crystallites shrink in dimensions ultimately leads to decrease in number of graphene layers per domain and apparent increase in defect density.


Graphitic oxide (GrO); graphene, reduced graphitic oxide (RGrO); graphene; Raman Spectroscopy; D-band; G-band; defect density; crystallite size; sp2 domains; X-ray diffraction (XRD); Full width half maximum (FWHM)

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