Assessment of Groundwater Quality using Water Quality Index (WQI) in Kulpahar watershed, District Mahoba, Uttar Pradesh, India

Ram, Arjun ; Tiwari, Dr Sanjay Kumar; Pandey, Dr Hemant Kumar; Khan, Dr M. N.


The continuous stress on groundwater due to its overexploitation and rampant use which is indispensable to the quality of life on the earth. The study area is occupied by Precambrian basement comprised of Bundelkhand massif unconformably overlain by Quaternary sediments consisting of alluvium, clay, silt, sand and gravel. The present study deals with the various geochemical characteristic of groundwater and henceforth assess the water quality index (WQI) which is an important criterion for the determination of drinking water quality of the area. The WQI is significant unique digital rating expression to decipher the overall quality of groundwater viz. excellent, good, poor, etc. that is helpful for selecting appropriate and economically feasible treatment process to cope up with the concerned quality issues. It is one of the most relevant and effective tool for educating the people residing in the area concerned and policy-makers about water quality.

An attempt has been made to understand the suitability of groundwater for human consumption in hard rock terrain of Bundelkhand region particularly in Kulpahar watershed, district Mahoba, Uttar Pradesh using WQI. The WQI has been calculated considering twenty parameters of twenty-two groundwater samples of different locations of the study area. These parameters pH, EC, TDS, alkalinity, total hardness, Ca2+, Mg2+, Na+, K+, HCO, SO₄2⁻, Cl, F, NO₃⁻, Ag, Cu, Fe,  Mn, Ni, Zn. The WQI in the study area ranges from 4.75 to 115.93.  The extreme southern part of the Kulpahar watershed, district Mahoba of Bundelkhand region is dominant with poor groundwater quality. The higher value of WQI indicative of poor quality has been observed which is mainly due to the higher values of EC, fluoride, nitrate, manganese, and nickel in the groundwater. The study suggests that groundwater quality in Panwari Block mainly belongs to excellent and good categories. A remarkable portion in the southern part of Jaitpur block is affected by poor to unsuitable category and needs sincere effort for a detailed zonation at micro-level to understand properly and provide accurate information to the residents as well as policy makers.


Groundwater, Watershed, WQI, GIS, Bundelkhand massif.

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