Hydrogeochemical characterization of groundwater in transboundary aquifers of Gurdaspur district, Punjab India.
Interpretation of spatial variations in chemistry of groundwater is necessary to appraise the pathways of groundwater and ascertain the most valuable strategies for the conservation and sustainable use of groundwater resources. Multivariate statistics and, in particular, factor analysis can efficiently support spatial variations in hydrogeochemical data providing an understanding of natural and anthropogenic effects on quality of groundwater. The present paper illustrates the integrated approach of hydrogeochemical methods and multivariate statistical investigation of the groundwater along transboundary aquifers in 5 blocks of Gurdaspur District, Punjab, India. Assessment of hydrochemistry diagrams indicated that the foremost water categories were Ca, Mg-HCO3. Outcomes of factor evaluation indicated that the weathering activities and agricultural practices were the dominant controlling factors in the study area. Even though, maximum of the groundwater samples was within the permitted limits of drinking standards, few of the samples cross them and some of the samples were quite close to permissible limits representing that the groundwater quality may deteriorate in immediate future. This infers the necessity of appropriate monitoring of quality of water for the sustainable protection and safeguarding of groundwater resources in the region.
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