An empirical approach of modeling and assessment for the safe use of commercial electric detonators in radio frequency radiation hazards


Singh, Jitendra Kumar


In the modern era of communication technologies using amplitude modulation (AM) and frequency modulation (FM) the transmitting antenna of radio, television, radar, cellular phones, wireless data acquisition systems and global positioning systems (GPS) are the main sources of radio frequency radiation hazards. The transmitting antennas of these communication devices generate electromagnetic fields (EMFs). Electric detonator wires, under certain circumstances work as receiving antenna and pickup enough electrical energy from such fields to initiate unexpected explosion. There have been many cases of detonators being fired accidentally by radio frequency pick up. In this work an attempt has been made to minimize such explosions and to provide a basis for assessing and modeling the parameters of radio frequency radiation hazards associated with commercial electric detonators. This research examines the radiated powers of various frequency bands to determine the safe distance from transmitting antenna. Based on mathematical simulation, two empirical relations have been proposed for the calculation of minimum safe distance (MSD). Using these relations desired MSDs have been calculated for the relevant frequency bands. The obtained values have been compared with the available experimental values showing good agreement between them. The average percentage deviations of calculated MSDs from proposed relations are found between 0.096% and 10.718%, with regression coefficient 0.970 ≤ R ≤ 1. This reflects the soundness of the proposed empirical relations. The blasting engineers, detonator designers and researchers may use these relations as a handy tool to prevent undesired explosions by maintaining minimum safe distance in radio frequency prone hazardous areas.


Detonators, Electromagnetic radiation, Empirical relations, Transmitter power, Mathematical modeling, Transmitting and receiving antenna

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