‘Four S’: The Gist of Science Communication in Modern China

Honglin, Li


In modern China, the objectives of science communication and popularization can be classified into four broad categories: popularizing scientific knowledge, establishing scientific thought, advocating scientific method and promoting scientific spirit. Some refer to these as ‘Four S’, for short. The ‘Four S’ (scientific knowledge, scientific method, scientific thought, scientific spirit) embodies the characteristics of contemporary Chinese science communication and popularization, which also largely stems from the context of science entering into and spreading throughout China since the late 19th century. At the same time, the ‘Four S’ encounters a few challenges in the ever-changing environment. It is argued that scientific thought and scientific spirit will determine the direction of science communication and popularization in the future, and thus also regulate the relationship between science and society in China.


Science Communication and Popularization, Scientific Knowledge, Scientific Method, Scientific Thought, Scientific Spirit

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