Biomimetic of hydroxyapatite with Tridax procumbens leaf extract and investigation of antibiofilm potential in Staphylococcus aureus and Escherichia coli

Nagaraj, Anusuya ; Kalagatur, Naveen Kumar ; Kadirvelu, Krishna ; Shankar, Sushmitha ; Mangamuri, Usha Kiranmayi ; Sudhakar, P ; Samiappan, Suja

Abstract

In the last few decades, hydroxyapatite (HA) has become one of the most highly prized biominerals in the biomedical industry for orthopedic and dental applications. The focus of this research was to synthesize biomimetic HA from Tridax procumbens (TP) leaf extract and investigate their antibiofilm properties. The HA was made using the sol-gel method and the HA-TP biocomposite was made by precipitation method. The d.nm size of HA and HA-TP biocomposite was determined as 193.28 and 258.14 d.nm, respectively. The zeta potential of HA and HA-TP biocomposite was determined as −21.2 and −18.3 mV, respectively, and found highly stable. The FTIR study revealed that phytochemicals of TP were successfully impregnated into HA-TP biocomposite. The HA and HA-TP biocomposite were found spherical and agglomerated from SEM analysis. In HR-TEM analysis, the average diameter of the HA and HA-TP biocomposite were 16.57 – 64.22 nm and 51.71 – 138.68 nm, respectively. According to the EDX analysis, HA is primarily composed of calcium, oxygen, and phosphate, whereas, HA-TP biocomposite is primarily composed of calcium, phosphate, oxygen, and carbon. In the antioxidant assay, the IC50 value (concentration required to scavenge 50% of free radicals) of HA-TP biocomposite was determined as 156.69 ± 14.02 and 180.21 ± 12.84 µg/mL in DPPH and ABTS free radical scavenging assays, respectively. The MIC (minimum inhibitory concentration) and MBC (minimum bactericidal concentration) of as-synthesized HA-TP biocomposite against Staphylococcus aureus – ATCC 13565 and Escherichia coli – MTCC 41 were observed as 181.09 ± 21.47 and 317.30 ± 41.03, and 157.59 ± 32.18 and 264.03 ± 21.58 µg/mL, respectively. The as-synthesized HA-TP biocomposite has detrimentally affected the biofilm formation of both the tested bacteria S. aureus – ATCC 13565 and E. coli – MTCC 41. The study concluded that the as-synthesized HA-TP biocomposite could be highly helpful in the biomedical field for alleviating oxidative-stress-related disorders and inhibiting microbial biofilm formation.

Keyword(s)

Antioxidant activity; Biocomposite; Biofilm; Hydroxyapatite; Tridax procumbens

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