Nanotechnology in vaccine and immunology
Nanotechnology exploits the exclusive characteristics of nanoparticles with size ranging from 1 to 1000 nanometers (nm). Various nanoparticles have presented magnificent potential for the fabrication of new drug carriers and vaccines. For designing vaccine significant attempts are done to engineer novel vaccines and to increase the efficiency of current vaccines for particular diseases. So far, few vaccines are engineered from killed pathogens or protein sub-units, while various vaccines are founded on live-inactivated pathogens that holds the danger of retrieval of their pathogenicity under some immune-compromised circumstances. To circumvent this designing of risk-free effectual vaccines in combination with satisfactory carrier systems are reflected as a vital requirement to attain preferred humoral and cellular immunity for various diseases. In the past years, utilization of vaccines based on nanoparticle has gained a pronounced responsiveness to increase aimed delivery, immunization approaches and vaccine effectiveness to attain preferred immune retorts at the cell level. To increase vaccine efficiency these nanoparticles mustguard the antigens from early proteolytic disintegration, controlled release, enable antigen internalization and management by antigen presenting cells for harmless human usage. Nanoparticles comprised of polymers, lipids, metals and proteins have previously been exploited to achievefew of these characteristics. In this context, various physicochemical characteristics of nanoparticles have a crucial part in the establishment of vaccine efficiency. This review emphases on the usage of nanoparticles centred vaccine and the importance of characteristics of nanoparticles to achieve effective vaccines delivery in order to prompt preferred host immunity against various diseases.
Immunization; Nanoparticles; Nanotechnology; Vaccine
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