Immunomodulatory potential of nanomaterials: Interaction with the immune system

Gupta, Kishan ; Dangi, Kapil

Abstract

Immunomodulation is an attractive approach to overcome the limitations of traditional therapeutic regimes against diseases. Immunomodulation-based therapies are emerging as promising alternative strategy that involves the defense mechanisms of the host to recognize and selectively eliminate diseases. Recent developments in nanotechnology have forged a revolution as development of nano-emulsions, nanotubes, and nanoparticles have provided promising strategies as novel immune-modulatorsto enhance efficacy at target sites. Moreover, interaction between nanoparticles and the immune system may cause unanticipated adverse reactions such as hypersensitivity, inflammation and necrosis. Therefore, to ensure a successful and safe clinical application of immune-modulatory nanoparticles, it is necessary to gain in-depth knowledge and a clear understanding of the multifaceted nature of the interactions between nanoparticles and immune system. Since elevated immunological responses are detrimental in elimination of exogenous or endogenous antigens, there are many bottlenecks that prevent the complete regulation of the immune system. Therefore, using nanostructures as transport vehicles to deliver immunological compounds to specific target sitesto overcome severe limitations. Different nanostructures are being exploited to develop novel adjuvants, innovative vaccines,and drugs to alter the immune system for various infectious and non-infectious diseases. The review focuses on various nanoparticle and their interplay with the immune system.

Keyword(s)

Immunomodulation; Immunosuppressant; Nano-vaccines; Nano-adjuvants

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