Optimization of process conditions to improve copper adsorption capacity of raw and treated Algerian bentonite: Characterization, kinetics and equilibrium study
Raw bentonite (RB) locally available in Mostaganem (Algeria) deposit has been treated in the presence of NaOH (B-NaOH), MgCl2 (B-MgCl2) and H2SO4 (B-H2SO4) to improve its adsorption ability for the removal of copper ions from aqueous solutions. Characterization of all adsorbents supported montmorillonite, illite and kaolinite as major clay minerals identified for the raw and treated bentonites and proved the aluminosilicate structure of the clays. In synthetic solutions, the adsorption equilibrium of copper onto RB, B-MgCl2 and B-H2SO4 is reached in 30 min. while, equilibrium is reached after 4 hours when using B-NaOH. The adsorption kinetics are well described by the pseudo-second-order model. The adsorption of copper is pH-dependent. The Langmuir, Freundlich and Dubinin-Radushkevich isotherms indicate a suitable fit between the experimental data and models. The corresponding parameters indicate that the sorption mechanism might be physical in nature. The maximum adsorption capacities of Langmuir that are obtained are in the following order 25.1 mg/g (RB) < 28.03 mg/g (B-H2SO4) < 39.89 mg/g (B-MgCl2) < 72.80 mg/g (B-NaOH). The removal efficiency of copper in industrial wastewater was 45.75 %, 55.22 %, 63.27 % and 70.39 % using RB, B-MgCl2, B-H2SO4 and B-NaOH, respectively. The B-NaOH exhibit a higher adsorption capacity of copper with the other tested bentonites.
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