The assessment of African penguin (Spheniscus demersus (Linnaeus, 1758)) management performances at the Underwater World Langkawi, Malaysia
A Malaysian Aquaria, the Underwater World Langkawi (UWL), has brought in 14 African penguins (Spheniscus demersus) for their ex-situ conservation. Following The Penguin Husbandry Manual produced by the American Zoo Aquarium Association (AZA), the UWL has adopted the population as their management regime and, as a result, has successfully bred the population from a total of 14 individuals to 40 individuals. This study aims to evaluate the captive management of penguins at the UWL and increase the efficiency of the management regime at the UWL. Environmental data were collected in this study, including the size of the Enclosure 13, temperature, lighting, seawater quality, and feeding data. The results showed that the showcase areas fulfilled the minimum requirements of the penguin, and no significant difference was found between morning and the evening temperatures. However, it differed significantly from the six lighting spots, and the pool's water was within the comfort zones. The diet provided for the African penguins at UWL follows their requirements. However, the amount of food supplied to each penguin at UWL is low compared to the food intake of the same individual penguin in the wild. Overall, the management of UWL is excellent practice. However, some weaknesses need further improvement.
Aquaria, Captive penguin, Diet, Environmental data, Ex-situ, Husbandry manual, Water quality
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