Changes in the expression level of the genes involved in the innate and adaptive immunity of divers
From time immemorial, humans had engaged in breath-hold diving. Developing the scuba (self-contained underwater breathing apparatus) in the last century has made humans increase the capabilities and efficiency of diving. Shallow diving is usually without side effects, but there may be a series of side effects called Decompression Sickness (DCS), which can even lead to severe neurological damages and death in deep and long dives. Scuba diving and its complications alter the pattern of many genes expression involved in innate and adaptive immunity. Researchers have reported various types of these changes in both the genomes of healthy and sick divers. This study surveyed the ten gene expression levels imported into immune responses like apoptosis and inflammation by real-time PCR in Iranian professional fit divers in steady-state. These genes were: Interleukins (IL-6, IL-8, IL-10), Tumor Necrosis Factor (TNFα), complement C3 (C3α), Tumor Necrosis Factor Receptor Type 1 - Associated Death Domain (TRADD), bradykinin receptor B2 (BDKRB2), rennin (REN), arachidonate 5-lipoxygenase (ALOX5), and prostaglandin-endoperoxide synthase 2 (PTGS2). The results showed that the expression levels of TNFα, ALOX5, TRADD, and interleukin genes increased, but PTGS2, REN, and C3α genes' expression levels did not change much. BDKRB2 gene expression level also decreased.
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