Medicinal plants of sandy shores: A short review on Vitex trifolia L. and Ipomoea pes-caprae (L.) R. Br.
Two plant species of sandy shores, namely, Vitex trifolia L. (Beach vitex) and Ipomoea pes-caprae (L.) R. Br. (Beach morning glory), have been selected for review. Both species have ethno-pharmacological relevance and have been traditionally utilised by local people in remedies for various ailments. Endowed with diterpenes and flavonoids as major constituents, V. trifolia has trypanocidal, antimicrobial, anti-quorum sensing, mosquito larvicidal and repelling, hepatoprotective, anti-inflammatory, analgesic, vascular relaxation, antimalarial, trachea-spasmolytic, wound healing, estrogenic, antinociceptive, anti-tubercular, anthelmintic, molluscidal, and mice repelling properties. It is noteworthy that casticin or vitexicarpin isolated from V. trifolia displays potent cytotoxicity against a wide range of cancer cell lines viadifferent modes of molecular action. Chemical constituents of I. pes-caprae include resin glycosides, flavonoids and phenolic acids. It exhibits antimicrobial, anti-inflammatory, antinociceptive, antispasmodic, insulinogenic, hypoglycemic, hypolipidemic, anti-collagenase and immuno-stimulatory activities. With an increasing number of people being stung by jellyfish while swimming in the sea of Thailand, clinical trials have been conducted to test the efficacy of I. pes-caprae extracts in treating jellyfish dermatitis.
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