Inhibition of pharmacological and toxic effects of Echis carinatus venom by Tabernaemontana alternifolia root extract

M S, Vineetha ; Janardhan, Bhavya ; More, Sunil S


The aim of the present study is to validate the anti-venom potential of traditionally used plant Tabernaemontana alternifolia root extract against Echiscarinatus venom by in vitro and in vivo studies. The methanol extract of the plant was evaluated for venom-induced pharmacological activities. Lethal toxicity determination, haemorrhagic studies and its neutralization were studied on chick embryo and mice model.  Oedema and myotoxic neutralization studies were carried out on mice model. At venom:extract 1:60 (w/w) concentrations delayed the clotting time from 12.11 to 100.66 s and at 1:40 (w/w) concentration inhibited the fibrinogen degradation. Further extract significantly inhibited direct and indirect haemolytic activities. The effective dose of extract for 2 LD50 of the venom was 0.98 mg/egg. The venom: extract at 1:20(w/w) ratio effectively antagonized venom-induced lethal toxicity. Reference haemorrhagic dose was found to be 2 μg in chick embryo and 10.00 µg was minimum haemorrhagic dose in mice model. Extract completely eliminated the haemorrhage on mice and chick embryo model. Venom-induced oedema ratio of 154% was reduced to 128% and LDH activity from 4520 ± 6.36 to 1685.33 U/L. T. alternifolia possesses highly promising anti-snake venom activity, thus study provided scientific evidence for its traditional use against snakebites.


Chick embryo model; Echiscarinatus; Haemorrhage; Procoagulant; Tabernaemontana alternifolia.

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