Piscicidal plants of Northeast India and its future prospect in aquaculture - A comprehensive review
Traditional knowledge and some indigenous techniques still serve as a reliable tool for harvesting resources from nature. Different species of plants (approx. 114) are used as piscicides by various people inhabiting Northeast India from a long period of time for fish harvesting purpose. The principle bioactive compounds present in the plant part (leaves, seed, kernels & bark) have varying potencies and mode of action depending on whether it is applied directly or in the forms of extracts (aqueous & alcohol) used. Aquaculture is one of the major sources of livelihood and protein in Northeast India. Although rich numbers of piscicidal plants are available, it cannot be commercially utilized in aquaculture unless detailed accounts of these plants are known. Bioactive compounds like saponins, rotenone, tannins, alkaloids etc. present in the plant may help to control the unwanted/predatory fish for healthy aquaculture. In the present review, the focus is given to all the plants used as a piscicide in Northeast India and its bioactive compounds, extraction medium, effective dose, test fish species and their biochemical, physiological and behavioural changes on some commercially important fish in India. Uses of herbal piscicides in aquaculture may help in replacing the harmful chemical piscicides of the environment.
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