Phytochemical screening and antifungal activity in vitro of Trichilia hirta L. fruit extracts against clinical isolates of Candida spp.
The increase in resistance to antimicrobials is a public health problem worldwide; it puts at risk the prevention and effective treatment of multiple infections and is responsible for high rates of mortality and morbidity in hospitalized patients. Species of the genus Candida are among the main opportunistic pathogens isolated from hospitalized patients. The aim was to evaluate the antifungal activity of extracts obtained from Trichilia hirta fruits against clinical isolates of Candida spp. Extracts were obtained by Soxhlet and cold maceration methods using T. hirta fruits. Preliminary phytochemical screening was carried out to identify the presence of secondary metabolites. Antifungal activity of ethanol and petroleum benzene extracts of T. hirta was evaluated using microdilution and agar well diffusion methods. Kruskal-Wallis test was performed, with the application of contrast tests. The extracts showed secondary metabolites such as alkaloids, flavonoids, phenols, tannins and saponins, steroids and/or triterpenoids. Seed extract in petroleum ether and ethanol inhibited the growth of the clinical isolates of Candida spp., and the strain C. albicans ATCC 10231 in all concentrations. Ethanolic seed extract had an inhibitory effect on the largest number of isolates studied, generating maximum inhibition in C. albicans, C. glabrata, C. parapsilosis, and strain C. albicans ATCC 10231. Seed extract in petroleum ether showed the highest growth inhibition of C. tropicalis, C. haemulonii, and C. krusei. Extracts of T. hirta may be a promising source of antifungal compounds with the potential to be used in future research and the pharmacological industry.
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