Historical review of advanced materials for electromagnetic interference (EMI) shielding: Conjugated polymers, carbon nanotubes, graphene based composites
Electromagnetic (EM) interference (EMI) “an off-shoot of explosive growth of electronics and telecommunications” is becoming an alarming issue for modern society. It may degrade the EM device performance or may adversely affect human health. Recently, polymer based blends and composites have emerged as powerful solution for efficient suppression of EM noises; thanks to the unique combination of electrical, thermal, dielectric, magnetic and/or mechanical properties, possessed by them. This review focuses on the basics of EMI shielding/microwave absorption, various techniques for measurement of shielding effectiveness, theoretical aspects of shielding, governing equations. In addition, different strategies and potential materials for handling of EMI have also been discussed with special reference to polymer based blends and composites especially those based on carbon nanotubes (CNTs), graphene and intrinsically conducting polymers (ICPs).
Electromagnetic interference (EMI) shielding; Shielding effectiveness; Reflection loss; Absorption loss; Microwave absorption; Conductivity; Intrinsically conducting polymers (ICPs); Carbon nanotubes (CNTs); MWCNTs; SWCNTs; Graphene; Nanocomposites; Complex permittivity and permeability
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