Electrochemical and lithium-ion transport properties of layered Li-rich Li1.10(Ni0.32X0.01Co0.33Mn0.33)O2(X = Dy/Gd/Ho) positive electrodes
Layer structured Li1.10(Ni0.32X0.01Co0.33Mn0.33)O2 (X = Dy/Gd/Ho) compounds were synthesized via the microwave assisted solvothermal route. The impacts of doping on the electrical and electrochemical properties of Li1.10 (Ni0.32X0.01Co0.33Mn0.33)O2 compounds were investigated. Rietveld refined XRD pattern showed Li1.10 (Ni0.32X0.01Co0.33Mn0.33)O2 compounds with layered hexagonal structure. SEM images revealed the compounds with micrometer sized grains. The Li1.10 (Ni0.33Co0.33Mn0.33)O2 compound delivered an initial discharge capacity of 197 mAh/g at 0.2C and retained a capacity of 163mAh/g after 50th cycle in the voltage window of 2.5-4.6V. The cycling stability of Li1.10(Ni0.33Co0.33Mn0.33)O2 compound was improved with rare earth doping. Li1.10(Ni0.32Dy0.01Co0.33Mn0.33)O2 compound delivered the discharge capacity of 166 mAh/g after50th cycle in the potential window 2.5-4.6V at 0.2C with 100% capacity retention. AC impedance studies displayed the electrical conductivity in the order of 10-6 S/cm. Wagner polarization analysis revealed the improvement in electronic transference number via rare earth doping.
lithium ion battery; cathode; excess lithium; microwave; rare earth doping
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