An investigation on gamma and neutron shielding efficiency of lead-free compounds and alloys
The effective atomic numbers, ZPleff and half value layer, HVL for lead-free shielding materials, tungsten compounds and alloys for gamma ray over an energy range from 1 keV to 100 GeV have been calculated in the present work. As well as the macroscopic effective removal cross-sections (ΣR) for fast neutron (2-12 MeV) had been calculated. From results, it has been concluded that HVL and ΣR values of the tungsten alloys are half of the lead shielding material. The values of ZPleff have been compared with possible experimental results, and good agreement has been observed. We found that the theoretical values of ZPleff of the tungsten alloys agree with experiment where the ratio of atomic number of the elements is near to unity and shows weak energy dependence for ratio away from unity. The tungsten alloys show better the degree of protection against gamma ray and neutron as compared to the lead, resulting in an overall reduction in thickness and volume of the shielding material. The tungsten alloys containing gold, silver, platinum, copper, nickel and iron were found superior lead-free radiation shielding materials. This study is expected to be useful for design and application of lead-free radiation shielding for nuclear engineering, radiation application to control lead hazard.
Toxic; Shielding; Fusion; Lead-free; Protection; Weak dependency; Tungsten-gold
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