Pharmacognostic evaluation of Bilva [Aegle marmelos (L.) Correa] root bark
Aegle marmelos L., family Rutaceae, is a sacred plant mentioned in various Hindu scriptures. It has both medicinal as well as cultural importance. In the present investigation, macroscopy, microscopy, and powder microscopy studies, physicochemical analysis, detection of heavy metals, analysis of aflatoxins, screening of microbiological parameters and High Performance Thin Layer Chromatography (HPTLC) fingerprint profile of methanolic extract were performed. Analysis of 04 aflatoxins (A1, B1, A2, and B2) was performed and found that no aflatoxins were present, authenticated by comparing the Rf value and colour of the standards spot with sample on TLC plate. Qualitative microbiological analysis of pathogenic bacteria, i.e., Staphylococcus aureus, Salmonella sp., Pseudomonasaeruginosa and Escherichia coli were done and found that no bacterial pathogens are present in the Aegle marmelos root bark extract. HPTLC chromatographic fingerprint of Aegle marmelos root bark was done by using mobile phase toluene: ethyl acetate: formic acid (7.5: 2.5: 0.4). TLC plate was derivatized by using derivatizing reagent 5% Methanolic - sulphuric acid reagent and plate was heated at 105°C till the bands are clearly visible. Major spots Rf values and colour were noted at 254 nm, 366 nm, after derivatization 366 nm and UV light. Therefore, established parameters may be used as a reference tool for proper recognition and confirmation of right plant material and monitoring of batch to batch consistency of finished herbal products using Aegle marmelos as an ingredient. This study may also helpful in the preparation of Aegle marmelos root bark monograph.
Aegle marmelos; HPTLC fingerprints profile; Microscopy; Physicochemical
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