The effect of fermentation process on bioactive properties, essential oil composition and phenolic constituents of raw fresh and fermented sea fennel (Crithmum maritimum L.) leaves
The influence of fermentation on antioxidant activity, total phenol, total flavonoid and phenolic compounds of sea fennel and also volatile compounds of sea fennel essential oil was investigated and compared with fresh samples. Antioxidant activity, total fenolic and flavonoid contents decresed from 89.79 to 63.13%; from 259.58 to 77.92 mg/100 g; from 2114.67 to 390.50 mg/100 g, respectively. Twenty-six and thirty-three components of sea fennel oils were identified in raw and fermented sea fennel, accounting to about 99.99% and 99.44% of the total oil, respectively. The raw and fermented sea fennel leaves contained 22.31 and 1.32% sabinene, 12.08% and 7.45% limonene, 10.30% and 11.61% β-phellandrene, 8.59% and 9.17% (Z)-β-ocimene, 7.08% and 3.55% α-pinene, 28.36% and 42.05% γ-terpinene, 2.57% and 8.64% terpinene-4-ol, respectively. Dominant phenolic compounds were (+)-catechin, gallic acid, 3,4-dihydroxybenzoic acid and p-coumaric acid. Generally, all of the phenolic compounds reduced the effect of microorganisms during,. However, essential oil contents of sea fennel were not effected from fermentation process.
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