Physicochemical characterization of traditionally fermented liquid manure from fish waste (Gunapaselam)

Hepsibha, Balraj Thendral; Geetha, Arumugam


Kunapajala, a fermented liquid from animal wastes has been used as manure since ancient times. Using this indigenous knowledge, fermented manure, Gunapaselam (in Tamil, Indian language), was prepared using fish waste and jaggery. An attempt was made to characterize Gunapaselam (GP) by measuring biological oxygen demand (BOD), chemical oxygen demand (COD), crude protein, lipid, minerals and amino acid content. The microbial status of the fermented manure was also enumerated. Phytotoxicity analysis was performed to scientifically validate its manurial potential. Changes in the pH, glucose, lactic acid, ethanol and acetic acid contents were recorded for first 5 days till the pH dropped to 4.0. The results show that during the course of fermentation, glucose concentration decreases with concomitant increase in the concentration of lactic acid, ethanol, and acetic acid. The analysis reveals the presence of macro, micronutrients and essential amino acids in Gunapaselam that could promote plant growth. Gunapaselam preserved permissible limits of BOD and COD levels. Microbial analysis proved the preparation was free from spoiling microbes. The highest germination index achieved from 50 fold diluted Gunapaselam. The data obtained confirmed the manurial potential of Gunapaselam which could restore the fertility of the soil deteriorated by chemical fertilizers.


Fish waste; Gunapaselam; Natural fermentation; Organic fertilizer; Phytotoxicity

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