Cellular investigations to uncover curative potentials of polyphenols- An in vitro study of Apple Cider Vinegar (ACV) and Chrysin against Alzheimer's like pathology via down-regulation of AChE activity
Amyloid aggregation and neurofibrillary pathology is the characteristic feature of Alzheimer's disease (AD). Streptozotocin (STZ) is a glucosamine nitrosourea compound that is toxic to the cells, impairs insulin signaling in the brain. STZ induces DNA damage and oxidative stress, which leads to cognitive impairments. In this experimental study, STZ treatment induces Alzheimer's pathology in mouse neuroblastoma (N2A) cells. The study also explored the protection of cellular damage by pre-treatment with test drugs Apple cider vinegar (ACV), chrysin and rivastigmine. This study had been concentrated mainly on the cellular mechanism of neuromodulation and anti –oxidant potency of test drugs to attenuate cellular toxicity induced by STZ treatment. The 100 μM concentration of STZ was used for treatment in N2A cells for 24 h and 48 h and multiple studies were performed. The STZ causes tau phosphorylation, amyloid aggregation and increased acetyl cholinesterase (AChE) activity. Along with STZ at a concentration of 100 μM, the cells were pre-treated with ACV, chrysin
and rivastigmine at a concentration of 2, 10, 50 μM each. The results show that 2 μM test drug concentration presented considerable protection, against STZ generated neurocytotoxicity via. restoration of anti-oxidant enzymes, MDA and AChE level, compared to the other two concentrations.