Safety evaluation of an antiviral polyherbal drug of Siddha Medicine in Wistar rats
A polyherbal formulation Nila Vembu Kudineer (NVK) is traditionally used in the Siddha medicine to treat variety of fevers and related illness. This preparation is also claimed to be useful in the treatment of Dengue and Chickungunya. However, information on its safety and effect on vital organs on prolonged consumption is still lacking. Hence, an attempt had been made to evaluate the safety profile of NVK by investigating its effect on hematology, biochemistry, antioxidant status and histopathology of vital organs of Wistar rats. Three groups of rats (n=4) were considered for the study. Group I rats served as control that received only food and water. Group II and III rats were orally administered with freshly prepared NVK decoction at400 and 800 mg/kg body weight respectively for 28 consecutive days. The body weights were monitored daily and on day 29, overnight fasted animals were sacrificed and the blood was collected to study hematological profile, hepato-renalmarkers and antioxidant parameters. The tissues of liver and kidney were subjected to histopathological examination. Sub-chronic administration of NVK in lower dose to rats did not produce any significant changes in body and organ weights. The hematological parameters as well as hepatic and renaltoxicity markers also showed no significant changes in lower dose. However, with higher dose of NVK, mild sinusoidal congestion and dilatation were noticed in liver tissues while significant elevation of urea in the serum and hydrophic changes in kidney architecture was observed in tissues. The results of the study indicated safety of NVK in the lower dose and possibility of nephrotoxicity with increase in dosage and duration.
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