Some chemical, physical, microbiological and sensorial properties of traditional water buffalo yogurts produced in Turkey
In this study, it was aimed to determine some physical, chemical, microbiological and sensorial properties of yogurts traditionally made from water buffalo milk in the Western Black Sea Region (WBSR) in Turkey. Totally 86 yogurt samples were collected from producers or sellers in the cities of Kastamonu, Karabük, Bartın, Zonguldak, Düzce and Boluin WBSR and analyzed. As a result of the analysis, mean dry matter (%), fat (%), non-fat dry matter (%), protein (%), ash (%), lactose (%), pH, acidity (LA, %), color values L*, a* and b*were obtained as 17.13±3.524, 6.98±2.327, 9.92±1.362, 4.48±0.690, 0.84±0.102, 4.59±1.011, 4.20±0.208, 1.22±0.236,96.22±2.217, -3.30±0.412 and 8.50±1.513, respectively. Starch was determined in none of the samples. Average water holding capacity was 67.48±9.594% and viscosity was 1249.67±1077.762 mPa.s. In addition; firmness (g), consistency (g.sec), cohesiveness (g) and index of viscosity (g.sec) were found as 246.43±138.898, 4910.66±2234.522, 182.32±87.672 and 334.79±149.087, respectively. Acetaldehyde, ethanol, diacetyl, acetoin and aceton values were obtained as 8.93±4.205, 114.93±154.807, 0.95±0.014, 24.44±16.905 and 0.59±0.504 (mg/kg), respectively. Mean aerobic mesophilic count was found as 4.41±1.032 log cfu/g, coliforms as 2.37±1.077 log cfu/g, yeasts and molds as 4.16±1.076 log cfu/g and total lactic acid bacteria count as 5.96±0.923 log cfu/g. Sensorial analyses showed that average appearance score was 3.76±1.005, smell 4.03±0.978, taste 3.64±1.105, consistency by spoon 3.93±1.005 and consistency by mouth3.71±1.022 on scale 5. Important variations in properties analyzed were observed among the samples collected from different cities. For example, the values of dry matter, fat, protein, ash, water holding capacity, viscosity and color were the highest in the samples of Karabük city among the others.
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